Statistics Canada data41 and provincial reports provided estimates of the number of primary and secondary schools and number of students and employees. No other competing interests were declared. We estimated costs, human resources and laboratory capacity required to test people in each group or to perform surveillance testing in random samples. Find stories, updates and expert opinion. This would detect individuals who might otherwise contribute to transmission and provide important epidemiologic information on how SARS-CoV-2 is affecting these populations. Changing laboratory capacity requirements across strategies, with attendant changes in total human resources (health care professionals, clerical staff and laboratory staff). Retour haut de page. To inform when to repeat testing of at-risk populations, we estimated the time to a new SARS-CoV-2 infection based on group size and daily risk of infection. Search the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more. All rights reserved. Elles indiquent, pour chaque commune, par rue et par foyer, les nom et prénom des habitants, leur profession, leur place dans le ménage (chef de famille, épouse, fille, fils, domestique,...) et, selon les années, l'âge ou l'année et le lieu de naissance, la nationalité et même, pour l'année 1851, les infirmités et la religion. Stephanie Law is a part-time employee at Carebook Technologies Inc., a mobile app tech company; Carebook Technologies Inc. is currently pilot-testing an app for monitoring symptoms related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); this is unrelated to and outside the submitted work. RESULTS: During July 8â17, 2020, across all provinces in Canada, an average of 41 751 RT-PCR tests were performed daily; we estimated this required 5122 personnel and cost $2.4 million per day ($67.8 million per month). The first group consisted of household and nonhousehold contacts of people who were newly diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection (strategy 1), who would be systematically traced and tested to reach an average of 2 household and 14 nonhousehold contacts.25,26 The remaining 4 groups comprised âat-risk populations.â These included all employees of acute care hospitals (strategy 2); all community health care workers, and employees and residents of long-term care facilities (strategy 3); all nonâhealth care employees of essential businesses with major interpersonal or public contact (strategy 4); and all students and employees in primary and secondary schools (strategy 5). We obtained costs from nationally representative sources. Les listes nominatives recensent, pour chaque commune, les habitants du bourg puis ceux des hameaux selon un ordre topographique : … C-SPAN.org gives you access to C-SPAN's daily coverage of Washington and more than 200,000 hours of extensively indexed and archived C-SPAN video. We aimed to estimate costs, human resources and laboratory capacity required for active testing strategies to detect SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR in groups at increased risk of infection in Canada. The most important benefit of an active testing approach is the identification of people infected with SARS-CoV-2 who have minimal or no symptoms and are currently undetected. For the strategy of systematic tracing and testing of contacts, we estimated costs associated with 1 repeat test for contacts testing negative and 2 repeat tests for contacts testing positive. Niger is a developing country, which consistently ranks near the bottom in the United Nations' Human Development Index (HDI); it was ranked 187th of 188 countries for 2015 and 189th out of 189 countries in the 2018 and 2019 reports. Rapidly scaling human resource and laboratory capacity is critical to the success of these strategies. Start studying RACE (part 1). As workplaces and schools reopen after the first wave of COVID-19 in Canada, testing priorities and strategies are needed to prevent surges in community transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Des récapitulatifs existent le plus souvent à la fin de chaque liste et permettent de suivre l'ordre de recensement. We did not consider costs associated with capacity building and existing infrastructure; nor did we include health system costs beyond testing, such as inpatient or outpatient medical costs, as most people detected would be unlikely to seek care or be detected otherwise. All of the authors contributed to the acquisition and interpretation of data. Jonathon Campbell and Dick Menzies drafted the manuscript. We conducted sensitivity analyses applicable to other scenarios, such as epidemic resurgence, and new approaches â such as the approval of accurate, inexpensive point-of-care tests â can be implemented with the tool we developed.74 We did not, however, estimate potential epidemiologic impacts of active testing, although we expect increased testing and contact tracing would help reduce community transmission, resulting in substantial downstream health system savings. Depending on epidemic stage and population prevalence, testing all people in at-risk populations may not be necessary, and surveillance-based testing â in which random samples of the population are tested â may be preferable. 1. Giorgia Sulis is funded by a Richard H. Tomlinson Doctoral Fellowship. At 592,800 square kilometres (228,900 sq mi), Madagascar is the world's 47th largest country, the 2nd largest island country and the fourth-largest island. 1 - Comprising those parts of concessions Nos. 2. In 1-way sensitivity analysis, cost of systematically tracing and testing contacts was most sensitive to RT-PCR reagent cost, and personnel needs were most sensitive to activities related to tracing and scheduling contacts. Olivia Oxlade reports being Associate Scientific Director (Management) for the COVID-19 Immunity Task Force. METHODS: We identified 5 groups who should be prioritized for active RT-PCR testing: contacts of people who are positive for SARS-CoV-2, and 4 at-risk populations â hospital employees, community health care workers and people in long-term care facilities, essential business employees, and schoolchildren and staff. We defined active testing strategies for SARS-CoV-2 using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for groups at increased risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 in all Canadian provinces. BACKGROUND: Testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is largely passive, which impedes epidemic control. We defined active testing strategies for SARS-CoV-2 using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for groups at increased risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 in all Canadian provinces. Funding: This study is directly funded by an operating grant (ECRF-R1-30) from the McGill Interdisciplinary Initiative in Infection and Immunity (MI4), a philanthropic scientific-granting organization with peer-reviewed competition; Dick Menzies was the Principal Investigator and Jonathon Campbell the co-Principal Investigator. Adresses et horaires des Archives départementales et associations généalogiques du Puy-de-Dôme Noms de famille les plus populaires dans le Puy-de-Dôme Additionally, unused capacity could be diverted to testing entire groups with higher prevalence more frequently and rapidly. These examples show massive testing programs are possible when governments prioritize efforts, provide adequate funding, involve all sectors and leverage human resources. Details may not equal totals due to rounding. Mayara Bastos, Federica Fregonese, Nicholas Winters, Jonathon Campbell and Olivia Oxlade are funded through a Canadian Institutes of Health Research grant (#FRD143350). If groups are found to have a low prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, routine surveillance testing would be essential to rapidly respond to increases. Explore the Billion Dollar Startup Club Lien vers le site des archives départementales du Puy-de-Dôme (département 63) Informations numérisées disponibles sur le site : - Etat civil jusqu'en 1912 - Registres matricules militaires de 1859 à 1921 - Recensement de population jusqu'en 1911 - Cadastre napoléonien - Minutes notariales - Bibliothèque (Monographies et périodiques) The fees were received and the work performed after initial submission of the present manuscript. • Diffusion sur le site internet des registres de plus de 75 ans en application de la loi n° 2016-1321 du 7 octobre 2016 pour une République numérique, décret n° 2018-1117 du 10 décembre 2018 • Consultation en salle de lecture jusqu’en 1975, conformément à la dérogation générale du 4 décembre 2009 (JORF n° 0288 du 12 décembre 2009 page 21505 texte n° 48). Les listes numérisées correspondent à la collection constituée par l'exemplaire envoyé à la préfecture par les communes et conservée dans la sous-série 6M aux Archives départementales. Timothy Evans is Executive Director of the COVID-19 Immunity Task Force. We do not capture any email address. Such public health capacity could also be leveraged for eventual coordination and implementation of vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. Larger groups, or higher infection risk, would require repeated testing at shorter intervals (Appendix 1, Table e10). From these simulations, we calculated the 10th, 25th and 50th percentile of the time to first infection (see Appendix 1 for code). Registres matricules numérisés. Les recensements ont lieu tous les 5 ans à l'exception des périodes de guerre (recensement effectué en 1872 au lieu de 1871, et absence de recensement en 1916). Conversely, heat extraction and saline transport media did not reduce resource needs as substantially. At the global level, studies have demonstrated that gender-based violence is perpetrated by husbands or male partners and that these husbands/partners or former partners force between 12% and 25% of women to The 2011 Census has shown that the population in England and Wales has become more ethnically diverse and all minority groups1 (with the exception of White Irish) have increased in number since 2001. For strategies involving at-risk populations, we estimated costs of 2 repeat tests for each person testing positive, and the cost of tracing and providing the initial test to 16 contacts for each person testing positive. This may be supported by engaging medical students,66 leveraging other health care professionals67 and using academic and private laboratories.68 Our sensitivity analyses also highlight other approaches that may expedite scale-up. Testing all members of workplaces and schools would support them in safely remaining open. Finally, testing all 6 012 144 students and employees in primary and secondary schools over 1.5 months would require an added 20 956 health care professionals, 22 950 clerical staff and 2462 laboratory staff, costing $816.0 million. Costs, testing capacity and human resource needs for conducting SARS-CoV-2 surveillance testing across Canada over 14-day intervals. These include strengthening of public health and laboratory capacity, which is essential to prevent recrudescence. Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, is located in southeastern Europe with the mainland at the south end of the Balkan Peninsula. Costs were estimated to be about 5% those of universal testing of at-risk groups. Data sharing: All data used to inform this manuscript are available in the main text, supplemental material, and online within our Excel tool (https://zenodo.org/record/3964991). GLPI ITSM is a software for business powered by open source technologies. Table 1 and Table 2 detail human resource needs, laboratory capacity and costs of testing all members of at-risk populations on a single occasion. Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on CMAJ. The country lies mostly between latitudes 12°S and 26°S, and longitudes 43°E and 51°E. Table reflects only those months for which there was trade. Daily human resource and laboratory capacity needs for active testing strategies for SARS-CoV-2 across Canada, Costs for conducting active testing strategies for SARS-CoV-2 across Canada. We then classified each of these occupations as being at high risk of interpersonal or public contact (Appendix 1, Table e3). Listes nominatives de recensement de population numérisées, Registres paroissiaux et de l'état civil numérisés, Plans du cadastre napoléonien et rénové numérisés, Série W. Fonds de l'Institut national de la Statistique et des études économiques (INSEE). Implementing interventions to reduce costs and improve efficiency were predicted to substantially affect resources required for universal testing (Table 1, Table 2). Testing of all hospital employees over a month required an additional 439 health care professionals, 890 clerical staff and 494 laboratory staff to sample 27 146 employees per day; the total cost was $29.0 million. Consultez la page dédiée au suivi du chantier, Vous êtes ici : Rechercher > Consulter les archives numérisées > Listes nominatives de recensement de population numérisées. 61° 37° Sun. In Canada, the populations targeted for active testing are large â some 4 million people in hospitals, community health care, long-term care and essential businesses, and 6 million within schools â but others have advocated for a similarly ambitious approach.57â59 In other countries, such as South Korea,60 Hong Kong61 and Germany,62 testing capacity was rapidly expanded to help control the initial epidemic wave. Systematic contact tracing and testing would increase personnel needs 1.2-fold and monthly costs to $78.9 million. l and 2 in the said Township lying to west of Grand River, and that part of concession No. If daily SARS-CoV-2 infection risk is 1 per 100 000 (corresponding to a population prevalence of about 0.01%), then population groups of 100 or fewer (e.g., smaller workforces or classes in primary or secondary schools) would be more than 90% likely to remain infection free for more than 3 months, and testing could be repeated quarterly. Nicholas Winters (Award #284837) is funded by a doctoral fellowship from the Fonds de Recherche du QuÃ©bec â SantÃ©. la salle de lecture est ouverte selon des modalités aménagées. Greece is bordered by Bulgaria, Albania, the Republic of Macedonia, the Ionian Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, the Aegean Sea, and Turkey.. Greece Demographics. There are other potential benefits to our proposed approach. The Census of Agriculture is a complete count of U.S. farms and ranches and the people who operate them. 98-316-X2016001. We separately calculated downstream costs of repeat testing and contact tracing and testing for each strategy. Franck C, Fix AD, Peña CA, Strickland GT Mapping Lyme disease incidence for diagnostic and preventive decisions, Maryland. 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This has had major social and economic consequences. Further detail is shown in Appendix 1. Month Saliva-based sampling would reduce costs by 25%â30% and nursing and clerical resource needs by about 20%. We evaluated group sizes of 10 to 1000 with daily risks of infection of 1 per 100 000 to 1 per 100 (assuming a communicability period of 10 days;44 these daily risks approximate population prevalence estimates of 0.01% to 10%, respectively). Pooling samples 4:1 could reduce reagents and laboratory technician time by nearly 70%. People at increased risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 are unlikely to seek testing unless symptoms develop. Sub-district Description. Competing interests: Alton Russell has provided consulting services to Terumo BCT, a medical device company, unrelated to and outside the submitted work; Terumo BCT does not manufacture diagnostic tests. Data from Statistics Canada provided the number of acute care hospitals and long-term care facilities,28,29 the number of employees for each in June 2020,4,30 and the number of residents of long-term care facilities.31,32 Without an estimate of the number of community health care workers in Canada,33 we used American data34â36 and assumed the number employed in Canada was proportional to population. Listes nominatives de recensement de population numérisées. This strategy also appears affordable compared with the $169.2 billion committed by the federal government as a response to the pandemic as of June 2020. Active testing of groups at increased risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 in Canada: costs and human resource needs, Variation in government responses to COVID-19, Blavatnik School of Government, University of Oxford, Our ongoing list of how countries are reopening, and which ones remain under lockdown, Scenario analysis update: COVID-19 pandemic and oil price shocks, Office of the Parliamentary Budget Officer, World economic outlook update: a crisis like no other, an uncertain recovery, Out to regain footing, Trump shifts virus focus to economy. Latest breaking news, including politics, crime and celebrity. La salle de lecture est fermée du 24 décembre au 3 janvier inclus. Costs, human resources and laboratory capacity for each strategy implemented across Canada are shown in Table 1 and Table 2, and for each province in Appendix 1 (Table e8). Testing the larger population within schools over 6 weeks would require 46 368 added personnel and cost $816.0 million. We first performed sensitivity analyses for universal testing, exploring methods to reduce costs and inefficiencies: saliva sampling instead of nasopharyngeal sampling (approximately 90% comparative sensitivity,45â50 sampling time halved); saline rather than specific viral transport media (no loss in sensitivity51); heat extraction instead of reagent-based extraction (approximately 91% comparative sensitivity52â54); and pooling of 4 samples for RT-PCR (no loss in sensitivity55,56) (Appendix 1, Table e6). Photos. We defined the status quo based on the testing performed between July 8 and 17, 2020, which includes testing of symptomatic people and limited testing of asymptomatic people (e.g., some individuals with exposure or at high risk of exposure). The grant also supports the salaries of Aashna Uppal and Mercedes Yanes-Lane. Plans du cadastre napoléonien et rénové numérisés. ISSN 1488-2329 (e) 0820-3946 (p). ةاﻻﺳﺗﻧﺎر وﺳﻳﻠﺔ ﺣﺳب اﻷﺳر ﺗوزﻳﻊ 1 10 2 أخرى وسيلة كھربائ تيار 36 9 14,1 1,10,2 100% كھربائي تيار 36,9 85,9 98,999,8 50% 63,1 0% 1984199420042014 50. As workplaces such as bars and fitness centres reopen, and industries such as air travel see increasing customer volumes, more workers will be at increased risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2. Using a binomial distribution with these parameters, we ran 1000 simulations in R (version 3.6.3) over a 2-year period. 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